Hospitals. Lazar Houses.21

Hospitals. Lazar Houses.

Seamen, and their Widows, as have served in the Royal Navy; or other Merchant Ships.

Dulwich College, beyond Southwark; founded by one Allen.

Dulwich College.

Trinity Hospital, near Milend, for decayed Mariners, as have been either Masters or Mates; founded by the Trinity House.

Trinity Hospital.

Morden College, founded by Sir John Morden, Kt. Turky Merchant, for decayed Merchants.

Morden College.

Ask's Hospital, founded by one Ask, for decayed Haberdashers, and their Children. Of all which large Accounts have before been given.]

Ask's Hospital.

Book I.

Now of Leprous People, and Lazar Houses.

It is to be observed, that Leprous Persons were always, for avoiding the Danger of Infection, to be separated from the Sound; God himself commanding to put out of the Host every Leper, &c. Whereupon I read, in a Provincial Synod holden at Westminster by Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Year of Christ 1200, the 2d of King John, it was decreed, according to the Institution of the Lateran Council, that when so many leprous People were assembled, that might be able to build a Church, with a Churchyard to themselves, and to have one especial Priest of their own, that they should be permitted to have the same without Contradiction; so they be not injurious to the old Churches, by that which was granted to them for Pity's Sake. And farther, it was decreed, that they be not compelled to give any Tithes of their Gardens, or Increase of Cattle.

Lepers.

Numb. 5.

A Decree concerning them.

I have moreover heard, that there is a Writ in our Law, de Leproso amovendo, i.e. of removing away a Leper. And I have heard that King Edward the Third, in the 20th Year of his Reign, gave Commandment to the Maior and Sheriffs of London, to make Proclamation in every Ward of the City and Suburbs, "That all Leprous Persons inhabiting there, should avoid within fifteen Days next; and that no Man suffer any such Leprous Person to abide within his House, and to incurr the King's farther Displeasure. And that they should cause the said Lepers to be removed into some Out-Places of the Fields, from the Haunt or Company of sound People." Whereupon, certain Lazar Houses (as may be supposed) were then builded without the City, some good Distance; to wit, the Lock without Southwark, in Kent-street: One other betwixt the Milesend and Stratford Bow: One other at Kingland, betwixt Shoreditch and Stoke Newington: And another at Knightsbridge, West from Charing Cross.

Leprous People to be voided the City.

Four Lazar Houses.

These four I have noted to be erected for the Receipt of Leprous People, sent out of the City at that Time: [To which may be added, the Hospitals of St. Giles and St. James beforementioned.] Finally, I read that one William Pole, Yeoman of the Crown, being stricken with a Leprousy, was desirous to build an Hospital, with a Chapel, to the Honour of St. Anthony, for the Relief and Harborow of such Leprous Persons, as were destitute in the Kingdom; to the End they should not be offensive to others in their passing to and fro. For the which Cause, Edward the Fourth did, by his Charter dated in the 12th of his Reign, give unto the said William for ever, a certain Parcel of Land, lying in his Highway of Highgate and Holoway, within the County of Middlesex, containing 60 Foot in Length, and 34 in Breadth.

A Lazar House at Highgate.

A little farther from the City, on the other Hand, viz. at Great Ilford in Essex, was a more ancient (and that a Royal) Foundation, for such diseased People; built and endowed liberally by King Stephen, for a Master, who was to be a Priest, and 13 poor Brethren, who were called Fratres Leprosi, i.e. Leprous Brothers; and for certain poor Women to attend on them. Which Hospital is in some Part still remaining, with the Chapel. But the most Part of the Revenue swallowed up, being gotten into the Hands of Laymen.

The Hospital for Lazars at Ilford.

J. S.

In former Times Lepers were in the City very frequent, and the Disease of the Leprosy so infectious, that as there were many separate Houses for these diseased People to dwell in by themselves, so they had their Overseers and Keepers; and divers Laws and Orders were made by the City cocerning them. As, that the Keepers of the Lepers should be eased from Inquest: That the Overseers of them be disburdened from Assizes: That the Lepers walk not about the Streets, not tarry there: That the Keepers of the Gates swear, that they will not permit Lepers to enter into the City. And there was some Time a Brief for removing them from the City and Suburbs. Another Time there was a Brief for levying an hundred Shillings out of a Tenement of the Lepers, and delivering it to their Officers for the sustaining of them.]

Lepers more frequent than in these Days.

J. S.

Laws for them.

Ex Kalendar. Camer. Lond.



21

CHAP. V.

Of divers Roman and other Antique Curiosities found in LONDON, before and since the great Fire.

THERE are preserved, either in public Repositories, or in more private Custody, many Antique Curiosities: Found chiefly in digging Foundations for the Building of London after the great Fire, and occasionally at other Times.

Antiquities found in and about London.

J. S.

In the Repository of the Royal Society in Gresham College, there is a large Glass Urn, that holds about a Gallon; and hath a few Shivers of Bones in it: It was taken up since the Fire in Spittle fields. The Glass is somewhat thick, bellying out, and contracting towards the Mouth with a Lip.

In Gresham College.

But the Collections made by Dr. John Woodward, Professor of Physic in Gresham College, is by much the most considerable of any. For, besides an ancient Marble Bust of Jupiter, a Marble Head with a Phrygian Tiara, a Grecian Basso-Relievo, a Votive Shield, exhibiting the Sacking of Rome by the Gauls; the Embossment of which is allowed by the greatest Judges to be the finest and most exquisite that all Antiquity hath left us: Several Icunculi of the Deities, both Egyptian and Roman: A considerable Variety of Amulets, Periapta, Phalli, Bullæ, Scarabæi: Gems with historical Sculpture, Heads, &c. graven upon them:

In Dr. Woodward's Custody, of Gresham College.

Great Varieties of them.

Camei