|The Antiquity of LONDON. ||5
particular, for repairing this City, and Erecting many fair Buildings, and encompassing
it about with a strong Stone Wall. In the West Part whereof he built a strong Gate,
called Ludsgate, as was shewed before, where are now standing in Nitches, over the
said Gate, the Statues of this good King, and his two Sons, on each Side of him, as a
lasting Monument of his Memory, being, after an Honourable Reign, near thereunto
Buried, in a Temple of his own Building.]
This LUD had two Sons, Androgeus, and Theomantius, [or Temanticus] who being
not of Age to govern at the Death of their Father, their Unkle Cassibelan took upon him
the Crown; about the Eighth Year of whose Reign, Julius Cæsar arrived in this
Land, with a great Power of Romans to conquer it. The Antiquity of which Conquest,
I will summarily set down out of his own Commentaries; which are of far better Credit
than the Relations of Geffrey Monmouth.
Cassibelan reigns. Julius Cæsar arrives
The Conquest of Britain by Cæsar.
Cæsar's Commentaries, Lib. 5.
"The chief Government of the Britons, and Administration of War, was then by
common Advice committed to Cassibelin, whose Borders were divided from the Cities
on the Sea-Coast by a River called Thames, about Fourscore Miles from the Sea. This
Cassibilin before had made continual Wars with the other Cities; but the Britons moved
with the coming of the Romans, had made him their Sovereign and General of their
Wars, (which continued hot between the Romans and them.) [Cæsar having
knowledge of their Intent, marched with his Army to the Thames into Cassivelaune's
Borders. This River can be passed but
one Place on Foot, and that with much
difficulty. When he was come hither, he observed a great Power of his Enemies in
Battel Array on the other side of the River. The Bank was fortified with sharp Stakes
fixed before them; and such kind of Stakes were also driven down under Water, and
covered with the River. Cæsar having understanding thereof by the Prisoners and
Deserters, sent his Horse before, and commanded his Foot to follow immediately after.
But the Roman Solders went on with such Speed and Force, their Heads being only
above Water, that the Enemy not being able to withstand the Legions, and the Horse,
forsook the Bank, and betook themselves to Flight. Cassibelaune despairing of
Success by fighting in plain Battel, sent away his greater Forces, and keeping with him
about Four Thousand Charioteers watched which Way the Romans went, and went a
little out of the Way, concealing himself in cumbersome and Woody Places. And in
those Parts where he knew the Romans would pass, he drove both Cattle and People
out of the open Fields into the Woods. And when
the Roman Horse ranged too freely
abroad in the Fields for Forage and Spoil, he sent out his Charioteers out of the Woods
by all the Ways and Passages well known to them, and encountered with their Horse to
their great Prejudice. By the Fear whereof he kept them from ranging too far; so that it
came to this pass, that Cæsar would not suffer his Horse to stray any Distance
from his main Battle of Foot, and no further to annoy the Enemy, in wasting their
Fields, and burning their Houses and Goods, than their Foot could effect by their
Labour or March.]"
The River of Thames, to be passed a-foot in one
Place in Cæsar's time.
The Policy of Cassibelaun on his ill
His Advantage against the Roman Horemen.
But in the mean while, the Trinobants, in effect the strongest City of those Countries,
and one of which Mandubrace, a young Gentleman, that had stuck to Cæsar's
Party, was come to him, being then the Main Land, [viz. Gaul] and thereby escaped
Death, which he should have suffered at Cassivelan's Hands
(as his Father Imanuence, who reigned in that City had done). The Trinobants, I say,
sent their Ambassadors, promising to yield themselves unto him, and to do what he
should command them, instantly desiring him to protect Mandubrace from the furious
Tyranny of Cassivelaun, and to send some into the City, with Authority to take the
Government thereof. Cæsar accepted the Offer, and appointed them to give him
Forty Hostages, and to find him Grain for his Army, and so sent he Mandubrace to
them. They speedily did according to his Command, sent the Number of Hostages,
and the Bread-Corn."
Trinobantes, Citizens of London.
Mandubrace and the Trinobants yield to
Cæsar. He defends them.
When others saw, that Cæsar had not only defended the Trinobants against
Cassivelaune, but had also saved them harmless from the Pillage of his own Soldiers,
the Cenimagues, the Segontiacs, the Ancalites, the Bibrokes, and the Cassians, by their
Embassies, yield themselves to Cæsar. By
these he came to know that
Cassivelaun's Town was not far from that Place, fortified with Woods and marish
Grounds; unto the which a considerable Number of Men and Cattel were gotten
together. For the Britains call that a Town, saith Cæsar, when they have fortified
cumbersome Woods, with a Ditch and a Rampire; and thither they are wont to resort, to
abide the Invasion of their Enemies. Thither marched Cæsar with his Legions.
He finds the Place notably fortified both by Nature and human Pains; nevertheless, he
strives to assault it on two Sides. The Enemies, after a little Stay, being not able longer
to bear the Onset of the Roman Soldiers, rushed out at another Part, and left the Town
unto him. Here was a great Number of Cattel found, and many of the Britains were
taken in the Chace, and many slain."
Cassibelaun's Town, West from London.
For Cæsar saith, 80 Miles from the
Cities of the Britains were cumbersome Woods
While these Things were doing in these Quarters, Cassivelaune sent Messengers to that
Part of Kent, which, as we shewed before, lyeth upon the Sea, over which Countries
Four Kings, Cingetorix, Carnil, Taximagul, and
Segorax, reigned, whom he commanded to raise all their
Forces, and suddenly to set upon an assault their Enemies in their Naval Trenches. To
which, when they were come, the Romans sallied out upon them, slew a great many of
them, and took Cingetorix, an eminent Leader among them, Prisoner, and made a safe
Retreat. Cassivelaune, hearing of this Battel, and having sustained so many Losses,
and found his Territories wasted; and especially being disturbed at the Revolt of the
Cities, sent Ambassadors along with Comius, of Arras, to treat with Cæsar
concerning his Submission. Which
when he was resolved to Winter in
the Continent, because of the sudden Insurrection of the Gauls, and that not much of
the Summer remained, and that it might easily be spent, accepted and commands him
Hostages, and appoints what Tribute Britain should Yearly pay to the People of Rome,
giving strait Charge to Cassivelaune, that he should do no Injury to Mandubrace, nor
the Trinobants. And so receiving the Hostages, withdrew his Army to the Sea
Britain cessed to pay a yearly Tribute to the
Thus far out of Cæsar's Commentaries concerning this History, which happened
in the Year before Christ's Nativity LIV. In all which Process, there is for this Purpose
to be noted, that Cæsar nameth the City of the Trinobantes; which hath a
Resemblance with Troy nova, or Trenovant: having no greater Difference in the
Orthography, than the changing of [b] into [v]. And yet maketh an Error, which I will
not argue. Only this I will note, that divers learned Men do not think Civitas
Trinobartum to be well and truly translated The City of The Trinobantes; but that it
should rather be The State, Communalty, or Seignory
Trinobant, New London.