|Reparation of the Wall. ||10
the City both by Land or Water, towards the Reparation of the City Walls, Forts,
Ditches, and such like.
As for those Letters of King Richard II. in the 10th of his Reign, which laid
Custom upon Goods, Merchandizes and Packs brought into London; and that to
for Ten Years, for Reparation of the said Walls and Ditches; it ran to this
Letters of K. Richard II. to the Maior,
"Rex dilectis Majori & Aldermannis, &c. i.e. The King to his beloved
the Maior and
Aldermen, and the rest of the Citizens of London, sendeth Health. Know yee,
whereas as well the Walls, and other [Afforciamenta] Forts of the said City, be
weak, and for want of Repair, are fallen down in some Places: As also, the
the same City are exceedingly filled with Dirt, Dunghills, and other Filth, and
Grass growing in the same, not only to the evident Danger of the said City and
Inhabitants thereof, (and chiefly at this present Time of War) but also to the
Disgrace and Scandal of Us and the whole City, &c. "
And then the King
said Maior and Aldermen a Power, to endure for Ten Years, to take of all kind of
Victuals and saleable Merchandizes brought to the City by Land or Water, coming
within the Liberty, the Customs underwritten, viz. For every Hundred of Wax 4d.
and upon abundance of other Wares certain Duties were set and fixed.
De Muragio pro Civit. London Pat. 10. R. 2. ps.
1. M. 31. in the Tower.
Yet this Murage was not so precisely to be applied for the Reparation of the
that upon occasion the King would command some part of it to other Uses: As once
King Edward II. in his Sixth Year, appointed the Reparation of Newgate to be
good from thence. Thus in a Record in the Tower, 6. Edward II. Rafe S----,
Newgate, was appointed by the King to repair the Chamber and Enclosure
of Newgate de Exitibus Muragii & Pannarii, i.e. out of the Issues of Murage
Pannage; and a Mandate was given to the Maior and Sheriffs for that Purpose.
the same Record mention is made de sistendo de Cathenis ex transverso vicorum
extendend. i.e. Of stopping People that brought in Commodities, by Chains to be
cross the Streets there, till the said Customs appointed were paid.]
In the Seventeenth of Edward IV. Ralph Josceline, Maior, caused part of the Wall
the City to be repaired, to wit, between Aldgate and Aldersgate. He caused also
Moorefield to be searched for Clay, and Brick thereof to be made, and burnt. He
likewise caused Chalk to be brought out of Kent, and to be burnt into Lime in
Moorefield, for the more Furtherance of the Work.
Brick and Lime made in Moorefields for Reparation
of the Wall.
Then the Skinners, to begin in the East, made that Part of the Wall betwixt
Buries Marks, towards Bishopsgate; as may appear by their Arms in Three Places
there. The Maior, with his Company of the Drapers, made all that Part betwixt
Bishopsgate and Alhallows Church in the same Wall; and from Alhallows toward the
Postern, call'd Mooregate. A great Part of the same Wall was repaired by the
of Sir John Crosby, late Alderman; as may appear by his Arms standing in Two
there fixed. Other Companies repaired the rest of the Wall to the Postern of
Cripplegate. The Goldsmiths repaired from Cripplegate towards Aldersgate; and
the Work ceased.
The Companies repair the decayd Wall.
In a Record which I have seen, and affirmed also by John Rouse, and after him,
Raphael Hollinshed, I find thus written.
A Record of the said Reparations.
John Rouse, Ralph Hollinshed.
"Anno MCCCCLXXVII. by the Diligence of Ralph Josceline, Maior of London, the
Wall about London was new made betwixt Aldgate and Crepplegate. He caused the
Moorefields to be searched for Clay, and Brick to be made and burnt there. He
Chalk also to be brought out of Kent,
and in the same Moorefields to be burnt into Lime, only for the Furtherance of
Work. The Maior, with his Company of Drapers, made all that part betwixt
Bishopsgate and Alhallows Church in the same Wall. Bishopsgate its self was new
built by the Merchants Almains of the Stillyard. And from Alhallows Church in
Wall toward toward Mooregate, a great Part of the same was builded of the Goods,
by the Executors of Sir John Crosby, sometime an Alderman, and Maior of London,
may appear by his Arms thereon fixed in Two Places."
Bishopsgate, new built, 1477.
"The Company of Skinners made that Part of the Wall between Aldgate and Buries
Marks, towards Bishopsgate; as may appear by their Arms in Three Places fixed.
other Companies of the City made the other Deal of the Wall; which was a great
to be done in One Year."
An ingenious Account of these ancient Walls of London, and the Manner and Matter
their Building, the Learned Dr. Woodward of Gresham College, Professor of
there, hath given in Writing, occasioned by some Digging near the Wall at
for Foundations of certain new Houses to be erected there in the Year 1707. On
Occasion the Wall was broke up, and Part of the Materials applied to the raising
new Building, which gave him Opportunity of observing the Fabrick and
of it. The Foundation of the Wall here lay Eight Foot beneath the present
from that up to almost Ten Foot in Height, it was compiled of Rag-Stones, with
Layers of broad Tiles interposed, each Layer at Two Foot Distance. To this
Workmanship was after the Roman manner. And these were the Remains of the
Wall, supposed to be that built by Constantine the Great. In this it was very
observable, that the Mortar was (as usual in the Roman Works) so very firm and
that the Stone it self as easily brake and gave away, as that.
The Fabrick of the Walls about Bishopsgate.
Dr. John Woodward.
Confer. Camd. Britann. in Middles. p. 312, and
Burt. Comment. on Antonin. Itiner. p. 165
It was thus far from the Foundation upwards, Nine Foot in Thickness; and yet so
Strength and Bulk had not been able to secure it from being beat down, and near
levelled with the Ground.
Thickness of the Wall.
Those broad Tiles mentioned above, were all of Roman Make. The Romans used
commonly two sorts of Tiles, viz. Tegulæ bipedales & sesquipedales,
Foot Tiles, and Tiles a Foot and an half. Those of this Wall were of the latter
Each of them is in English Measure one Inch and 1/10 in Thickness, Eleven Inches
in Breadth, and Seventeen Inches 4/10 in Length.
Roman Tiles in the Wall.
The old Wall having been demolished, as above, was afterwards repaired again,
carried up of the Thickness of the former underneath, to Eight or Nine Foot in
or if higher, there was no more of that Work now standing. All this was
additional, and of a Make later than the other Part underneath. It is compiled
Rag-stone; only in the Sides were interposed a few Bricks uncertainly, and
stated Method. On the outside, the Stone was squared, and wrought into Layers
Five Inches in Thickness. Between these were alternately interposed two Course
Bricks, of the same Form with those on the inside. These were very large, being
Shape of the Modern; but Eleven Inches in Length, and Five in Breadth, and Two
half in Thickness. There was not one of the above mentioned Tiles in all this
was the Mortar here near so hard as in that lower.
Repaired and raised higher.
As the Fund and Ground within the City hath by Rubbish, and the Ruin of Houses,
been successively raised and heightned every Age, it was requisite the Wall
should rise likewise in Proportion; and by reason thereof, in Tract of
The present City Wall.