LONDON BRIDGE. 55

LONDON BRIDGE.

" Years next following compleated, ye take the underwritten Custom of the foresaid Bridge: To wit, of every Man on foot, bringing Merchandise, or other Things saleable, and passing over the said Bridge, and betaking himself to other Parts, One Farthing: Of every Horseman passing that Bridge, and betaking himself to other Parts as beforesaid, with Merchandise, or other saleable Things, One Peny: Of every saleable Pack, carried and passing over the Bridge, One Halfpeny. Nor will We, in the mean Time, that any Thing be taken there on this Occasion, but in the Subsidy of the Reparation of the Bridge. But the Term of Three Years being compleated, let the foresaid Custom cease and be void, &c. Witness the King at Chester, the 6th Day of July."

Yet again in the same Tenth Year of Edward I. the King sent to the Maior, with Two or Three of the Discreeter and more Loyal Citizens joined with him, to lay a Custom during the same Term, for the Reparation of the Bridge, upon every Man that passed the Thames on either side of the Bridge, from London to Southwark, and from Southwark to London, One Farthing: And of every Horse so passing, a Peny; and of every Pack so passing thereon, One Halfpeny.

Further Custom for this Work.

The like Imposition and Customs were continued, for the Repairing of this Bridge, in 27 and 30 of this K. Edward I.

Likewise in the 14th of Edward II. Anno 1320. there was need again of Letters Patents for gathering Alms and Aids, as before, for the Reparation of the Bridge: And Messengers were sent into all Parts of England for that Purpose. And the King also sent his Letters to the Archbishops and Bishops, and other Minister of the Church, as before.

Add also these Matters collected from Records, concerning this Bridge.

King Henry III. in the 54th Year of his Reign, Anno 1269, granted the Custody of the Bridge to the Queen his Consort, with the Liberties, and all other Things belonging thereunto, for the Term of Six Years.

The Queen has the Custody of the Bridge.

Certain Pieces of Ground near Wolcherch were granted by Edward I. for the foresaid Bridge. Edward III. granted the Maior and City a certain Place, or Piece of Ground near the House of Friars Minors, [i.e. Grey Friars] for the Reparation of the Bridge: Which those Friars (42 Edw. III.) laboured to be granted to them; as it seems, for the Enlargement of their Monastery: As the Religious in and about London, in this Reign, much enlarged their Houses with the neighbouring Lands. A Tenement in the Parish of Alhallows in Hony-lane, bequeathed by Roger Essex, for the Use of London Bridge, in King Edward the First's Reign. It is taken notice of on some Occasion, in 46 Edw. III. perhaps to confirm it.

Lands given for the Bridge.

The Jurats of one of the Wards of London, in the Inquisition taken by the Judges Itinerants at the Tower, in the Reign of King Edward I. presented, That the Custody of the Bridge, and the Soke thereof, was in the Queen's Hands; they knew not Quo Warranto, i.e. by what Warrant: Cum Socne ejusdem de antiquo, &c. When the Soke thereof anciently was in the Hands of the Maior and Commonalty of the City, which was then in the Hands of the King's Mother, from the Time of the Battel of Evesham, to that Time.

Custody of the Bridge.

This was the fortunate Battle, fought by King Henry III. when he beat Simon Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and the Barons. And then the City, which held with them, presently felt it, by ha- ving this Bridge, and the Liberty of it, wrested from them. They presented also, that the Bridge was not well kept.

This was the Matter of another Presentment, in the same K. Edward I. his Time: Wherein they presented, That London Bridge was always wont to be in the Hands of the Citizens; but now it was not so. Et nesciunt quo Warranto. The King had now seized the Liberties of the City into his Hands: Yet the Citizens seem by those Words to stand upon their Rights and Privileges.

The Jurats also of another Ward in London made the same Presentment to the Judges Itinerants, then sitting at the Tower, in these Words: Dicunt, quod Custodia Pontis, &c. "They say, That the Custody of the Bridge of London, which is wont to belong to the City, is alienated by the Lady Queen Mother of Edward our King; and the Keepers of the said Bridge appointed by the said Lady Queen, parum apponunt in Emendatione & Sustentatione, &c. lay out but little in the Amending and Sustaining of the said Bridge. Whence Danger, which God forbid, may lightly arise very much to the Damage of the King, and of the City."

The Rents and Revenues of the Bridge, and the Duties and Customs belonging to it, were no question very considerable. But all now came to the Queen; and she substituted under her other Keepers, which the City used to do. And these Men made the best of their Time, by making what Gains they could, to the great Neglect of the necessary Repairs of the Bridge. This the City complained of, and presented.]

I find these Gifts by Will towards the Repairs of London Bridge.

Gifts to the Repairs of the Bridge.

John Feckenham, Civis & Braciator, by his Will dated May 11. 1436, bequeathed to the Maior and Commonalty of the City of London, a Tenement, with a Shop and Garden, in the Parish of S. Augustin Pappey, between the Tenement and Lands of the Bridge of the City of London, on the East, &c. To have to the Maior and Commonalty of London, ad Usum & Sustentationem Operis Pontis prædict. in perpetuum. On Condition, that the Chaplains of the Chapel of S. Thomas the Martyr, on the Bridge, celebrating, have his Soul, and also the Souls of the late Lord Richard II. King of England, Edward Boteler, Kt. and the Lady Anne his Wife, Richard Storme, and Alice his Wife, and the Soul of Joan, his [the said Feckenham's] Wife, perpetually recommended in their Prayers.

London Bridge.

Regist. Lond.

S. Thomas Chapel on the Bridge.

And John Edwards, by his Will, dated the 8th of November, 1442, gave to John Hatherle, Maior of the City of London, and to John Herst and Thomas Cook, Masters of the Work of the Bridge of London, for ever, his Tenement, with a Garden, in the Parish of S. Botolph Aldgate; situate between the Tenement lately John Cornwallys's, on the South, &c. and extends from the King's Street leading from Aldgate towards the Tower, on the West, &c. towards the Sustaining and Reparation of the said Bridge.]

London Bridge.

Regist. London.

And now to Actions on this Bridge.

The first Action on this Bridge to be noted, was lamentable: For within Four Years after the Finishing thereof, to wit, in the Year 1212, on the 10th of July, at Night, a marvelous terrible Chance happened. For the Borough of Southwark, upon the South side of the River of Thames, as also the Church of our Lady of the Canons there, being on fire, and an exceeding great Multitude of People passing the Bridge, either to extinguish and quench it, or else to gaze

Actions on London Bridge to be noted.

and