The ROYAL SOCIETY. Philosophical Transactions. 161

The ROYAL SOCIETY. Philosophical Transactions.

had given of those ancient Pedigrees excepted against, either to the Earl Marshal, or to the College of Heralds; vel ad Collegium Antiquariorum, qui statis Temporibus, conveniunt, & de rebus antiquis corferunt: Quorum plerique etiam in Genealogiis sunt exercitati: i.e. "Or to the College of Antiquaries, who at set Times met, and conferred concerning Antiquities, divers whereof were well skilled in Genealogies." But return we to the Royal Society.

The inegenious Mr. Thomas, the present Operator to the Society, in a Paper kindly imparted to me, hath drawn up, under divers Heads, the Subjects proper for the Learned Members, to communicate, as well for the Honour of the Society, as for the advancing and dispersing abroad of useful Knowledge; which, as he writes, if handled with Judgment and Sincerity, seem most agreeable towards the promoting of those Ends, which this Royal Society was at first instituted for by K. Charles II. the Founder and Patron; and since from time to time successfully supported by the due Care and Benevolence of its own Members, for the Advancement of the Purposes already mentioned. All along remembring, at least as a Society, not to assert any Thing but what Ocular Demonstration would allow to be Matter of Fact, in spight of the Hypothetical Influence of Atristotelians, Cartesians, Adepts, Astrologers, and common Longitudinarians.

Mr. Thomas Operator.

Proper Subjects propounded to the Society.

He therefore wished, that such as had Opportunity, Capacities, and the Advantage of good Telescopes, would communicate all Astromonical and other Observations, whether of the Spots in the Body of the Sun, of their Situations and Variations therein, of their Increase and Decrease; or of the Nebulæ mentioned by that universal Scholar, and most acute Philosopher Dr. Halley, No. 347. of the Philosophical Transactions. Of new Stars appearing, or of others disappearing. Of Comets, and of all Eclipses, whether of the Sun, Moon, Stars, or Satellites.

Astronomical Observations.

Dr. Halley.

That accurate Accounts would be no less acceptable of all uncommon Appearances in the Heavens; such as Auroræ Boreales, Meteors of all Kinds, Thunder and Lightning; particularly noting the Time between the Flash and the Crack, and the like Phænomena. Also Registers of the Wind and Weather, of the Thermometer and Barometer; of the Quantity of Rain that falls upon any space of Ground, though but a Foot square; of the constant Flux and Reflux of Tides for some time, with Remarks; such as how high they Flow, and how low they Ebb, and the Moon's Age at the time of observing them.

Uncommon Appearances in the Heaven, Auroræ, Boreales, Meteors, &c.

That all new Discoveries in Natural History would be also very desirable; such as good Descriptions of Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptils, Insects, of amphibious Animals, of Fish; whether Testaceous, or of other Kinds: Of Plants, Minerals, Fossils, or the like, that are either met with but rarely, ill treated by the Authors that writ of them, or that have hitherto passed unregarded: Whether they may be of any Advantage to Mankind, as Food or Physick; and whether those, or any other Uses of them can be further improved.

Descriptions of Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptils, &c.

As likewise Accounts of the different Sorts of Mineral Waters, of their Chymical Analysis, or of other Experiments, (such as those of Dr. Slare upon the Pyrmont) in what Cases and Quantities they have been taken; and with what Success. Dissections of Morbid Bodies, whether Human, or of other Animals, were highly wanted, with particular Relations of the Parts decayed or affected; and of the Symptoms, during Life, attending those Distempers, with all Anatomical Discoveries and remarkable Cases, not only in Physick and Surgery, but also in Farriery, and the Diseases of Cattel; such as the Murrain amongst the Cow Kind, and the Rott amongst Sheep; and their Cures, if possible.

Mineral Waters.

Dissection of Morbid Bodies.

He recommended also new Experiments, either in Chymistry, such as those of the Learned Dr. Friend, in his Prælectiones Chymicæ, or in Pharmacy; such, as what Medicines are easily incorporated together, and what not: And how compound Medicines may be reduced less simple, yet answer the same End, &c. or upon all, or any of the Materia Medica; such as those of Monseur Tournfort.

New Experiements in Chymistry and Pharmacy.

That Improvements in Agriculture would be in like manner gratefully received. Such as the most commodious ways to water the high Grounds, and to drain the more wet and low; To meliorate the barren, and to enrich even the fertile Land. What sort of Grains, Plants, or Fruit thrive best in the several Soils; And how each of them may be manured to the best Advantage: With all useful Observations in Planting and Gardening; like those of Mr. Evelyn and Mr. Bradley. All Microscopical Discoveries, like those of Mr. Lewenhoeck, Dr. Hook, and of the aforesaid ingenious Mr. Bradley.

Agriculture, Planting, Gardening.

Microscopical Discoveries.

That no less valuable would be new Inventions or Improvements in Mechanicks; with Descriptions of Machines, Engines, Instruments, or the like; made use of either in Mines or Water-Works; in the more commodious Loading, Unloading, or Carrying of Goods; or for the greater Benefit of speedy Travelling by Sea or Land: More especially in the Arts of Navigation and War. Hereunto may be added, Exact Histories of all Sorts of curious and beneficial Trades in any Country: Such as the Make of their Tools, and the way of applying them; with an Account of their Materials, both rough and wrought.

Mechanicks, Engines, &c.

He added, how these few Hints, with great Variety more of this kind, and the best manner of Proceeding in most of them, might be gathered out of the Philosophical Transactions, published from Time to Time by the Secretaries of this Society; out of the Memoirs of the Academy Royal of Sciences at Paris, the Acta Lipsica, the Miscellanea Berolinensia, and others.

Philosophical Transactions.

The same Gentleman distinguisheth the Learned Members of this Society into divers Ranks; of such as were of great Ability in the Sciences following; some in one, some in others: Viz. In Natural Philosophy, in Astronomy, Geometry, Opticks, Natural History, Anatomy, Chymistry, Mechanicks, Husbandry, Gardening and Planting, and Antiquities.

Concerning this last, viz. Antiquities, he acknowledgeth, That properly speaking, it was not the Business of the Royal Society; but that many of its Members were Antiquarians: And that several Things in that venerable Study were no less entertaining, than useful and satisfactory. And that therefore it was not to be questioned, but that all ancient Manuscripts, Paintings, Medals, Coins, Urns, Monuments, Inscriptions, or ought else, tending either to explain the Ceremonies, Customs, Arts and Sciences of our Ancestors, or to set any controverted Points of History in a clear Light, must be received with Gratitude.


And lastly, For the Increase of the Library and Repository, he moved well disposed Persons to be Benefactors, either of Books, or other Curiosities: Adding, That new Books upon any of the foregoing Subjects, or Abstracts of them; also any Thing remarkable, rare or curious, toward augmenting their Libraries, and Repository of Rarities, (kept at the Royal Societies House in Crane-Court, Fleetstreet) would be no unacceptable Present.

Books, and Rarities requested for the Library and Repository.