[Armourers.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [White-Bakers.]209

[Armourers.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [White-Bakers.]

That whereas there were two distinct Companies of Surgeons, occupying the Science of Surgery; the one Company commonly called The Barbers of London, the others called The Surgeons of London; it being judged necessary that both Companies should be united and made one Body Corporate, by the said Act they were both united, and made one intire and whole Body Corporate, and one Commonalty perpetual, to be called by the name of Masters or Governours of the Mystery and Commonalty of Barbers and Surgeons of London, for evermore. By this Act those of the Company that occupied Surgery were to be exempt from bearing of Armour, or from being put in any Watches or Inquests. And that they might take every Year four Persons condemned and put to Death for Felony, for Anatomies, at their discretions and pleasures. And that none of the Company that used Barbery and Shaving, should occupy Surgery, letting of Blood, or any other thing belonging to Surgery, except only drawing of Teeth. Nor he that used the Mystery of Surgery, should exercise the Feat or Craft of Barbery or Shaving.

Both incorporated 32 Hen. VIII.

The Surgeons afterwards were complained of, as well for their Ignorance in their Craft, oftentimes hurting their Patients instead of doing them good; as also for taking great Sums of Money, and doing little therefore. And that it was well known, that the Surgeons admitted, would do no Cure to any Person, but where they knew to be rewarded with a greater Sum than the Cure extended to. For many rotted and perished to Death for lack of help of Surgery, and daily died. And that they troubled others well disposed, that ministred for God's sake to poor People that had sore Breasts, Pin and Web in the Eye, Scalding, Burning, sore Mouth, the Stone and Strangury, Saucelim and Morphew. In Consideration whereof, and for the Comfort and Relief of the King's poor Subjects, it was ordained, in the 34th and 35th of Hen. VIII. That it should be lawful to every Person, having Knowledge and Experience in the Nature of Herbs, Roots and Waters, or of the Operation of the same, to practise and minister to any outward Sore, uncome Wound, Apostemations, outward Swelling, or Disease, any Herbs, Ointments, Bath, Pultes and Emplaisters, according to their Cunning and Experience.]

Complaint against the Surgeons.

This Company (besides divers Priviledges of several kinds by their Charter granted unto them) have Power at any time to command the Body of any Malefactor executed at Tyburn, (except a Traitor's) to anatomize the same: which they commonly do, and exercise their Skill thereupon in private at their Hall. And commonly once in every Year (and that in the Time of Lent) they command such a Body. Which being brought from the Place of Execution to their Hall, is cleansed, and laid out upon a Table, in their publick Theatre built for that purpose; where the next Day, a learned Doctor of Physick, meets the chief Members of the Company. And the Doctor sitting in a Chair against the Body, and the rest sitting on a Bench about it, reads a Lecture about some Part or Member; and two of the Company (called at time Masters of the Body) standing by the Table upon which the Body lies, having all necessary Instruments to put in Practice what the Doctor reads and dictates; the Galleries above being filled with young Students in Physick and Chirurgery, to hear and see the Method and Manner thereof, for the Increase of their Knowledge. These Lectures do commonly last three Days: And then they bury the mangled Body, in a Place in the Parish Church-Yard. But sometimes they make a Skeleton of the Body, or otherwise; and many Pieces of Art of that kind are preserved, and stand erected about their Theatre.]

Leyborne.


ARMOURERS.

 
[ Click here to view Image of coat of arms, Armourers' Company   ]

THE Soceity or Company of the ARMOURERS have been a Brotherhood of ancient continuance, and became incorporated in the beginning of the Reign of King Henry VI. the King being pleased to stile himself a Brother of their Society.

The Arms and Crest of the Brothers and Sisters of the Fraternity or Guild of St. George, of the Mystery of the Armourers of the City of London, (as they were termed in their Charter) were anciently born by the said Corporation. But afterwards declared and confirmed to them by Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux, by Patent under the Seal of his Arms and Office, 3 & 4 Phil. and Mary, 1556. And confirmed in a Visitation, 1634.

J. S.

Mrs. Jone Doxie, Widow, gave to this Company of Armourers, for the Relief of four poor Widows, for every yearly, 5l. to each; and desired to have it called the poor Widows Mite.]


WHITE-BAKERS.

 
[ Click here to view Image of coat of arms, White Bakers' Company   ]

THE Company of WHITE-BAKERS are of great Antiquity, as appeareth by their Records, and divers other things of Antiquity, extant in their Common Hall. They were a Company of this City in the first Year of Edward II. and had a new Charter granted unto them in the first Year of Henry VII. the which Charter was confirmed unto them by Henry VIII. Edward VI. Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and King James I.

Their Arms were anciently born: the Crest and Supporters were granted to them by Robert Cook, Clarencieux, the Letters Patents bearing date Nov. 8. 32 Eliz. 1590. The Cloud on the Chief thro' which the Hand holding the Scales cometh, hath a Glory, omitted in the Edition printed 1633. and on each side of the Hand are two Anchors, here also omitted; as by the Visitation Book Anno 1634, appears.

J. S.


WAXCHANDLERS.

 
[ Click here to view Image of coat of arms, Wax-chandlers' Company   ]

THE Company of WAX CHANDLERS having been a Brotherhood of very ancient standing,

and