[Rates of Carmen.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [The Watches.]393

[Rates of Carmen.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [The Watches.]

And as we have set down the Rates for Coaches, so we shall subjoin the RATES for Carmen, as they were settled at a General Quarter Sessions. They were as follow:

FRom any Wharf between the Tower and London Bridge, to Tower-street, Graschurch-street, Fanchurch-street, Bishopsgate-street within, Cornhil, and Places of like distance up the Hill, with 1800 Weight, not exceeding 2000 Weight, 2s.

Rates of Carmen.

Present State of England.

And for every 100 Weight above 20 Hundred, 2d.

Sea-coals a Load, i.e. half a Chaldron, or an hundred of Faggots, 1s. 2d.

From any of the aforesaid Wharfs, to Broadstreet, Lothbury, Old Jury, Bassishaw, Coleman-street, Ironmonger lane, Aldermanbury, and Places of like distance, the aforesaid Weight, 2s. 6d.

Coals, or Faggots, 1s. 4d.

From any of the said Wharfs to Smithfield Bar, Holborn Bar, Temple Bar, or like distance, the like Weight, 3s. 4d.

And where the Weight from 18 to 20 Hundred pays 2s. 2d. from 14 to 18 Hundred pays but 1s. 10d. And where from 18 to 20 Hundred pays 2s. 6d. from 14 to 18 Hundred pays but 2s.

And where from 18 to 20 Hundred pays 2s. 2d. from 8 to 14 Hundred pays but 1s. 6d. And where from 18 to 20 pays 2s. 6d. from 8 to 14 Hundred pays but 1s. 8d. There are other Particulars stated, but according to these Proportions.

Note, That for the foregoing Rates, the Carmen are to help, as much as they can, to load and unload their Carts.

All Merchants, and others, may chuse what Car they please, except such as stand for Wharf-work, Tackle-work, Crane-work, Shop and Merchants Houses; which are to be taken in Turn.


Every Licensed Carman is to have a Piece of Brass fixed upon his Cart, with a certain Number, which is registred in Christ's Hospital. So that of any Carman offend, the Person grieved may repair every Tuesday at two of the Clock in the Afternoon to the said Hospital, the Court then sitting, and telling the Number, the Carman's Name will be found out, and if he be found guilty, punished.

And because in the Night time many loose People wander abroad in the Streets, to rob and do Mischief to such as have Occasion to come home late; and Accidents of Fire, or other Violences, happening upon Houses; especially at the unseasonable Hours of the Night, when People are asleep in their Beds; therefore special Provision is made in this City against these Dangers, by the Appointment of fit Persons, with suitable Strength, to walk about and watch every Night.

The Watch of London.

For by ancient Custom, all Persons, Inhabitants of the City, being Housekeepers, whether Freemen or not, were bound to keep Watch within their own Ward by Night, or to get a fit Person to do it for them: for the Preservation of the King's Peace, and for arresting and apprehending Night-walkers, or suspected Persons.

Who to watch.

Every Constable is the Head of the Watch: and he, with a Beadle, is bound to be present. And every Constable of any Precinct, is a Constable, not only in his own Precinct and Ward where he dwelleth, but in every other Precinct and Ward within the City.


Add to this Government of the Night by Watches, there is belonging to each Ward a Bellman, who, especially in the long Nights, goeth thro' the Streets and Lanes, ringing a Bell; and when his Bell ceaseth, he salutes his Masters and Mistresses with some Rhimes, suitable to the Festivals and Seasons of the Year; and bids them look to their Lights. The Beginning of which Custom, seems to be in the Reign of Queen Mary, in the Month of January, 1556; and set up first in Cordwainer-street Ward, by Alderman Draper, Alderman of that Ward. Then and there, (as I find in an old Journal) one began to go all Night with a Bell; and at every Lanes End, and at the Wards End, gave Warning of Fire and Candle, and to help the Poor, and pray for the Dead.


By ancient Order, and by an Act of Common Council, the precise Number of Men to watch every Night in each Ward, was assigned, according to the Bigness of it: and was as followeth:

Watchmen in each Ward.

Ward or Precinct.Men.Ward or Precinct.Men.
Duke's Place10Dowgate36
Aldersgate44Faringdon within50
St. Martins le Grand12Mugwel-street4
Broadstreet30Faringdon without130
Billinsgate30 White-Friars8
Bridge within25Bridewel8
Bassishaw12Bartholomew Great 10
Breadstreet26Bartholomew Less4
Cripplegate within40Tower40
Cripplegate without90Vintry34

But these Numbers of Watchmen allotted to each Ward, were lessened afterwards, in the Year 1705, as shall be related hereafter.

In the Year 1663, 15 Car' II. Sir John Robinson Maior, divers good Orders were made by the Common Council, for the better Service of these Watches. As, that the Watch with a Constable and Beadle, should watch every Night in every Ward, from nine of the Clock in the Night to seven in the Morning, from Michaelmas till April the 1st. And from April 1, till Michaelmas, from ten of the Clock in the Evening till five in the Morning.

Orders for the Watches.

The Alderman in each Ward to appoint one Constable, and the full number of the Inhabitants, according to the Proportion before mentioned, to watch in his repsective Ward. And from thence to proceed, and go forward, in an orderly way: and to appoint the next Night one other Constable of the Ward, and the like number of Inhabitants, adjoining unto those who watched the Night before.

Every Constable making default in executing his Duty, to forfeit 5l. Every Person not watching, being warned, to forfeit 1l.


Two or more Supervisors, to be appointed by the Alderman, Deputy, and Common Council Men of every Ward; to take care and oversee that the Watches be duly kept, and to present the Names of any, whether Constable or others, that make default, to the Lord Maior, or Alderman of the Ward.


By the Act of Common Council for settling the Watch, Robinson Maior, they were allowed to go off at five in the Morning: at the Quarter Sessions in the Year 1702, Sir William Gore Maior, the Watch was enjoined to stay till six; as appears by this Order.

Time of Watching.