[Orders for the Poor] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Rogues taken.]438

[Orders for the Poor] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Rogues taken.]

and Labours to be set up in Bridewell. Stock and Tools to be provided. All Vagrants to be brought to Bridewell, that shall be found remaining in this City, after a Procalamation for their Departure to other Places, where by Law they ought to be provided for. The Diseased to be sent to Hospitals to be cured; and being cured, to be sent to Bridewell again; and there to be examined; and so to be discharged or set on work, in such work as they shall be found fittest for, and kept with thin diet only. Such Vagrants as shall be found skilful in any Occupation, the Governours of Bridewell shall use their Endeavours, that some Citizen or other take them into their Service. Such as belong by Law to the Charge of the City, having young Children upon their hands, and none found by Law to find them, those Children to be sent to Christ's Hospital, so far as the House shall be able to maintain them, the rest to be maintained at the Charge of the Parish: Carriers or others that bring any Children or other into the City, and leave them unplaced or not sufficiently provided for, to be punished by Imprisonment, or otherwise as sharply as Law will permit; and be bound to convey them back again. Inn-keepers or others that wittingly receive or keep such, either to provide for them, or discharge the City of them. Warning of this to be given by Proclamation. Several Charges to Constables and other Officers concerning taking up Vagrants, with other effectual Provisions against Idleness and Poverty, were now made; and digested into a Book printed by John Day; the better to be known by all and observed.

Recorder Fleetwood had set up Privy searches in London for the better finding out of loose and dangerous Persons, who about these times exceedingly pestered the City. In these Privy Searches he employed trusty Officers to go about secretly into the obscurer Parts, to seek for Rogues and Thieves. By which course he at last almost cleared the Town of them. In the Year 1581, soon after Christmas, were brought into Justice-Hall above an hundred Persons taken in one Nights Privy-Search, as we shall hear by and by.

A Privy Search set up by the Recorder.

100 Rogues taken.

And as they had these Ways to find out and bring to light these idle masterless Beggars and Vagabonds; so they had divers sorts of Punishments for them, namely, Imprisonment at Bridewell, and whipping there; and such as were strong, were sent sometimes to the Milnes, and sometimes to the Lighters to work.

Their Punishments.

Upon occasion of a great Parcel of Rogues encompassing the Queen's Coach near Islington one Evening in the Year aforesaid, when she was riding abroad to take the Air; (which seemed to put her into some Disturbance) Notice was presently given to the Maior and Recorder. On that Night and the next Day were taken Seventy Four Rogues, and sent to Bridewell.

Rogues come about the Queen's Coach at Islington.

Upon Twelfth-Day the Lords of the Council gave Charge to the Master of the Rolls and the Recorder of London, touching Rogues and Masterless Men; and to have a Privy Search. That very Day the Recorder met the Governor of Bridewell; and they examined together all the above-said Seventy Four Rogues, and gave them substantial Payment. And the strongest they bestowed in the Milne and the Lighters; the rest were dismist, with a promise of double Payment, if they were met with again.

Rogues and Masterless Men taken and punished in Epiphany Week.

Upon Sunday, the Day after this Twelfth-Day, out of the Dutchy, Westminster, Southwark, Lambeth and Newington, were gathered up a Shoal of Forty Rogues, Men and Women. All sent to Bridewell. The same Day Afternoon at Pauls, were taken up Twenty cloaked Rogues; that used to keep their Standings there.

More taken.

The next Day, being Monday, in the Morning, the Master of the Rolls, and other Justices for the Places about London, took order with the Constables, for a Privy search against Thursday at Night. And the Maior and Recorder did the like in London and Southwark.

The next Day, Six Fellows were brought out of the Savoy Hospital, entertained there as Poor. Who were nothing else but Draymen to Brewers. They were soundly paid, and sent home to their Masters.

All Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, came in Numbers of Rogues, that were rewarded according to their Deserts. The Strong put to Labour, and the Weaker dismist into their Countries.

Friday, at the Justice-Hall were brought in above an Hundred. The Master of Bridewell well received them; and immediately gave them Punishment.

Saturday after Dinner, the Recorder went to Pauls and other Places, as well within the Liberties as elsewhere; and found not one Rogue stirring.

The Observations the Recorder made to the Lord Treasurer concerning the Transactions of this Week, were, That of all these Companies there were not, of London, Westminster, Southwark, Middlesex nor Surrey, above Twelve; the residue for the most part were of Wales, Salop, Chester, Somerset, Berks, Oxford, Essex: And that few or none of them had been about London above three or four Months. And that they met not again with any in all their Searches that had received Punishment. So cautious did good Labour and good whipping make them. And further, he observed, that the chief Allurers of these evil People were the Savoy, and the Brick-kilns near Islington.

The Recorder's Observations.

April 1582, was executed Margaret Harding, a famous Cut-Purse in these times. The Week afore Christmas she pleaded a Pardon for the like fault. Which Pardon was procured by Monsieur de Alphene. And there was now a Gentleman at the Court that she reported had an hundred Marks of her. The Woman had before the Benefit of sundry other Pardons, as well general as special: Such Prevalency had her Bribes at Court, or so dextrous were her Cheats, that they procured her many Friends to intercede for her.

A famous Cut-Purse executed.

Concerning the Over-building in the City mentioned before, I have this to add, That it was about the middle of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, that great Care was taken, that the City grew not too populous; to prevent the Encrease of poor and needy People, and the Danger that might come to the City in Plagues by too great Multitudes: Also care was taken for the preventing of Drinking-Houses, now used to be much in Cellars. And when old Houses were repaired, that were of good Amplitude, they would make two or three Tenements of them, to encrease the Rent. And these were turned, some into Alehouses, or let to such as were of the poorer sort. Great Houses also were sometimes turned into Allies, consisting of divers Houses. Many Sheds also were set up, to serve for small Shops. Which did but harbour poor Pople. There were also made Holes under the Shops for the poorer sorts of Artisans. Which were injurious both to the Beauty and Wholesomness of the City. Stalls also were set out from the Houses into the Streets upon London-Bridge, and in other Places of the City, to the streightning of the Streets for Passage. Moreover, to the further Inconvenience of the City, many were made free by Redemption, the Lords making Requests for certain People of the City for that Purpose. And hereby it became much filled by such, their Wives,

Inconvenience of too much Building.