The City of WESTMINSTER.10

The City of WESTMINSTER.

to be kept at Westminster, the same to last fifteen Days, and in the mean Space all Trade of Merchandize to cease in the City. Which Thing the Citizens were fain to redeem with two thousand Pound of Silver.

This King Henry, as he rebuilt this religious Frabrick of King Edward the Confessor, so he religiously observed his Festival at the said Place. And when he could not be present, he gave Command to have it honourably celebrated by others in his Name. Thus in the 39th of his Reign, Anno 1255, it is recorded in the Tower Records, that because the King was not sure that he could be present at the Solemnity of the Feast of St. EDWARD approaching, by Reason of various and urgent Affairs in Scotland, he commanded Philip Luvel his Treasurer, and Edward of Westminster [his Son] in the Faith and Love, whereby they were held bound to the King, that they keep the said Feast together, with the venerable Fathers, the Bishops of Sarum, Norwich, Bath, Chichester, and the neighbouring Abbot and Prior, whom the King by his Letter, hath invited to the Feast; and that they solemnly celebrate it at the King's Cost; and for the Poll of the King, and Queen, and their Children, so much to be offered, scil. de 36 Almuciis nomine eorum offerri, in their Name; and that they cause to be touched the Silver Cross upon the great Altar at Westminster; and that they offer one Plate of Gold of the Weight of one Ounce in the King's Name, as is customary in the Solemnity of theMass of the said EDWARD, as tho' the King himself were present. And to fill the King's two Halls at Westminster, in the said Feast [with People] and cause them to be fed, as hath been accustomed to be done; and cause solemnly to come to Westminster on St. EDWARD's Day, the Procession of the Church of St. Margaret, and all the Processions of the City of London, with Wax-Lights, and their other Processions, as the King hath likewise commanded the Maior and the honest Men of London. This was dated at Werk the 13th of September.

Festival of S. Edward observed by Kings.

J. S.

Rymer's Fœder. Convent. Tom. I. p. 563.

Clause-Roll.

And that nothing, no not Vows, might obstruct this King's Solemnization of this Feast, the next Year, viz. 1256. he obtained a Bull from Pope Alexander, for the King and his Guests, to keep it, whensoever it should fall on a Saturday. It was directed, To his dear Son in Christ, Henry King of England. And it was granted on this Occasion, as it seems by the Import of the said Bull, viz. That the King was detained by a Vow he had made from eating Flesh on Saturdays, and that he had desired a Freedom from that Vow, that he might the better keep this Feast, whensoever it should fall out on that Day. Cum sicut ex sua parte, &c. "Whereas, on their Behalf it is signified to us, that you are bound by Vow to abstain from Flesh on Saturdays, we, yielding to your Requests, indulge, by the Authority of these Presents, your Excellency, that if the Feast of the Translation of St. Edward happen to be kept on a Saturday, it may be lawful for you to eat Felsh, notwithstanding such a Vow; and also for your Guests, who have not been bound by such Vow. And we will, that you be bound for this to feed an hundred Poor the same Day." This Bull hath a leaden Seal with Strings of yellow and red Silk.]

Pope Alexander's Bull for this Feast, to dispense with the King's Oath.

Rymer's Fœdera, &c. Tom. I.

The Work of this Church, with the Houses of Office, was finished to the End of the Quire, in the Year 1285, the 14th of Edward the First.

All which Labour of 66 Years, was in the Year 1299 defaced by a Fire, kindled in the lesser Hall of the King's Palace at Westminster, the same, with many other Houses adjoining, and with the Queen's Chamber, were all consumed, the Flame thereof also (being driven with the Wind) fired the Monastery, which was also with the Palace consumed.

Westminster with the Palace burned.

And Monastery.

Then was the Monastery again repaired by the Abbots of that Church, King Edward the First and his Successors, putting to their helping Hands.

Repaired.

Edward the Second appropriated unto this Church the Patronages of the Churches of Kilueden and Sabritsworth in Essex, in the Diocess of London.

Simon Langham Abbot (having been a great Builder there in the Year 1362.) gave four hundred Pound to the Building of the Body of the Church: But (amongst others) Abbot Islip was (in his Time) a great Builder there, as may appear in the Stone-work and Glass-windows of the Church. Since whose Decease, that Work hath stayed as he left it, unperfected, the Church and Steeple being all of one Height.

The Portal of this Church, on the North-side, is of very curious Work (as yet may be judged by those that view it) having two little Portico's on each Side, of which one only serveth for Passage at present. This was anciently called Solomon's Porch, and was of great Esteem, having the Statues of the twelve Apostles at full Proportion, besides a Multitude of lesser Saints and Martyrs, and much fine Fretwork to add to the Beauty of it.

Some Description of the Church.

Mon. Westmon. by H. K.

J. S.

For the Figure of this Church, it is built in the Form of a Cross; the Vaults and Side Iles are supported by 48 Pillars of gray Marble, each distant from other eight Foot. And from thence another Row of lesser Pillars, double the Number of the former, and of the same Marble, to the upper Roof or Vault, sixty Foot; the Vault itself being supported by these Pillars, whose Arches turn not upon Semi-Circles, according to the Roman Manner of Architecture practised in our Days, but meet in acute Angles, in Imitation of the Gothic Way of Building; and dividing themselves into several Squares, compose a most stately Roof, wrought with divers figured Stands, and in some Places curiously gilt with Gold. The Length, 360 Foot, reaching to the Stairs of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh, within the Walls. The Breadth of the Nave 75 Foot, of the Cross 195. King Henry the Seventh's Chapel contains 122 Foot in Length, and 62 in Breadth; so that the whole Fabrick is no less than 482 Foot long within the Walls, as a late Author saith, he measured it by a Line.

The Figure of it.

The Architecture.

H. K.

In this Church (besides the Chapels of S. Edward, and that of Henry the Seventh, formerly called The Blessed Virgin's Chapel, and that of S. Katharine, and S. Anne; the Situation of which two last is uncertain) are ten Chapels, viz. four on the South, and six on the North. Those on the South are, S. Blase's, S. Benedict's. S. Edmund's, and S. Nicolas's. Those on the North are, S. Andrew's, S. Michael's, S. John Evangelist's, S. Erasmus's, S. John Baptist's, and S. Paul's.

Chapels in this Church.

On each Side the Body, or Nave, under each Window, and between each Pillar, you have the Names in ancient English, or Saxon Letters, and under them the Coates of Arms of several Kings, Princes, and Noblemen; chiefly such as flourished when King Henry the Third rebuilt this Church; beginning, on the South Side, with S. Edwardus Rex & Confessor; next, Henricus Tertius Rex Angliæ; then, Alexander III. Rex Scotorum; and so on to the Noblemen; in all to the Number of twenty on that Side: And then the North Side begins with, Fredericus, Secundus Imperator: Next, S. Lodovicus Rex Franciæ; Then, Ricardus Clare Comes Glocestriæ; and so on, in all, to the Number of twenty on this Side also.

Names of Kings and great Peers inscribed upon these Walls, very antient.

On the Side of the Pulpit is a most comely Picture of Richard the Second King of England,

The Picture of K. Richard 2. by the Pulpit.

sitting